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Information Creation as a Process refers to the understanding that the purpose, message, and delivery of information are intentional acts of creation. Recognizing the nature of information creation, experts look to the underlying processes of creation as well as the final product to critically evaluate the usefulness of the information.
In earlier drafts of the Framework this was referred to as called Format as a Process
Alignment with 2000 ACRL Standards
- Search engines and library databases are organized and work differently.
- Information works through a cycle and evolves over time.
- Presentation is everything. How information is presented impacts how it is interpreted.
- One can obtain information in different ways.
- Format depends on the audience.
- Academic publishing follows a discipline-specific format and process.
- Evaluate information before you use it.
Possible Learning Objectives
- Understand how search engines and library systems organize and collect materials for discovery and access.
- Explain how information is produced and distributed (the information cycle).
- Identify the variety of information formats, articulating their purposes and distinguishing characteristics.
- Distinguish between format and method of access, understanding that these are separate entities.
- Choose the appropriate information format to meet the particular information need.
- Recognize information formats which are unique to the academic context.
- Evaluate information with set criteria (i.e. the CRAAP test.).
Tweet Response Simulation
In this activity, students work in groups to craft a response to a presidential tweet from an assigned perspective (e.g. right or left leaning news source; an advocacy organization, the White House Press Secrtary). In doing so, they are required to find, evaluate, and effectively use information to make a case.
Teaching News Literacy with Process Cards
Students learn to understand the different roles that information sources play in the news/information cycle: Breaking news, News Reports, Investigative Reporting.
Politics, Mass Media, and Science
This pathfinder discusses how politics and our mass media system complicate the dissemination of important scientific information. Excellent resource for this era of fake news proliferation.
Evidence of a Life: An Introduction to Primary Sources
A 30-minute activity that gets students thinking and talking about the primary sources they create as they go about their daily lives, in order to prepare them to understand and contextualize the primary sources they encounter in historical research.
The Sorting Machine - Lesson Plan
A classroom activity for first-year students. Students learn to differentiate between different categories of items -- such as Popular/Scholarly, or Primary/Secondary/Tertiary -- by playing a sorting game.
Format as a Process
By University of Washington University Libraries. Of note:
--Chalk talk: have students in small groups write various formats of sources for a given topic, outside of peer-reviewed, and then discuss their thoughts on how useful these formats would be to their literature reviews
--Evidence-based research in nursing (1st quarter nursing students) - have groups determine different types of evidence-based research on either articles given to them or they find - what type of evidence-based research it is (case study, double-blind, systematic review) and share with one other group or report out to group
--Groups will each get an item, (citation?), newspaper, academic article, book, magazine article, webpage or blog. They will try to understand the “role” of each in the research process by defining its format closely, even though online it is harder to define.
ACRL IL Framework Task Force
This guide was created by a task force of PALNI librarians.
Task Force Members:
Eric Bradley | Goshen College / PALNI
David Dunham | Taylor University
Sally Neal | Butler University
Amber Pavlina | University of Saint Francis
Creative Commons License
Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education by PALNI's ACRL IL Framework Task Force is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License unless marked otherwise. PALNI’s logos and branding template are not covered by this license, and all rights to such material are reserved.