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Scaffolding Instruction Toolkit: Bibliography

Background information, tools, resources, and ideas for learning more about and implementing scaffolded instruction



Baer, A. (May 2019). Scaffolding information literacy. Inquiring Teachers Course.

Belland, B. R. (2014). Scaffolding: Definition, current debates, and future directions. In Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 505-518). Springer, New York, NY.

Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2013). Engaging the adolescent learner: Gradual release of responsibility instructional framework. International Reading Association,

McLeod, S. A. (2019). What is the zone of proximal development? Simply Psychology, Retrieved from

Northern Illinois University (2008; updated 2015). Instructional scaffolding to improve learning.  Spectrum Newsletter, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center.

​Sardo, C. & Sindelar, A. (2019, March 27). Scaffolding online student success. Faculty Focus,

Best Practices________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Caruana, V. (2012, October 15) Scaffolding student learning: Tips for getting started. Faculty Focus,

LeMire, S. & S. J. Graves (2019). Mapping out a strategy: Curriculum mapping applied to outreach and instruction programs. College & Research Libraries, 80(2).

Mulvahill, E. (2018, August 31). 10 ways to scaffold learning. We are,

Northern Illinois University (2008; updated 2015). Instructional scaffolding to improve learning.  Spectrum Newsletter, Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center.

Otis, S. N. (2013). Sources before search: A scaffolded approach to teaching research. In M. Deyrup & B. Bloom (Eds.), Successful Strategies for Teaching Undergraduate Research (pp. 123-137). Lanham, MD:  The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Pinantoan, A. (2013, March 20). Instructional scaffolding: A definitive guide. informED

Sardo, C. & Sindelar, A. (2019, March 27). Scaffolding online student success. Faculty Focus,

Skene, A., & Fedko, S. (2012). Assignment scaffolding. Center for Teaching and Learning. University of Toronto. [pdf file].  

Witek, D. (2016). Becoming gardeners: Seeding local curricula with the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy. College & Research Libraries, 77(10), 504-508.

Curriculum Mapping___________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Dominican University of California. (18, Apr 2018). Curriculum maps. Library Instruction Program Assessment

Kurzmann, S. B. (25, Jan 2006). Faculty Guide: Curriculum Map of the Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education. Ramapo College of New Jersey.

St. Edwards's University's Munday Library. Information Literacy - Curriculum Map

University of Pittsburgh. (27, Jun 2018). Curriculum mapping. Information Literacy Tools @ Pitt.

Webb, K. K. (24, Oct 2016). Roadmap for a successful curriculum mapping project. Library Connect.

Wichita State University. (24, May 2019). Curriculum mapping. Library Instruction Program.


Taxonomies of Learning _______________________________________________________________________________________________________

Armstrong, P. (2019). Blooms's taxonomy.

Cloud County Community College. Bloom's Taxonomy Process Verbs, Assessments, and Questioning Strategies.

Fontno, T. & Williams, A. (Apr 2019). Using Depth of Knowledge Questions to Encourage Deep Thinking: Intentional Questioning as an Instructional Strategy.

Francis, E. M. (9, May 2017). What exactly is depth of knowledge? ASCD in Service.

Hall, M. (30, Jan 2015). A guide to Bloom's Taxonomy. The Innovator Instructor Blog.

Mississippi State University & The Mississippi Department of Education. (2009). Webb's Depth of Knowledge  Guide: Career and Technical Education Definitions.

Northeastern University. Revised Bloom's Taxonomy Action Verbs.

SMCM Library. (28, Mar 2019). Writing learning outcomes.  Information Literacy & Pedagogy toolkit for Librarians.

Stanford INSPIRE. (2017). Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Plan Questions.

Webb, N. L. (28, Mar 2002). Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas.



Scaffolding with LibGuides ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Atilano, M. (n.d.). LibGuides: Creating an Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

Fedko, S., & Skene, A. (2012). Assignment Scaffolding. University of Toronto Scarborough. Retrieved from

Hogan, K., and Pressley, M. (1997). Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and issues. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

Hopkins, J. (n.d.). LibGuides: Research Topics: How to Select & Develop. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

Hunt, C. (n.d.). LibGuides: Reading and Critiquing Research. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

McGuire, M. (n.d.). LibGuides: Choosing a Topic. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

Nowak, K. (n.d.). LibGuides: Designing Research Assignments: Scaffolding Research Assignments. Retrieved January 28, 2018, from

Pfeiffer Library (n.d.). LibGuides: Conducting Effective Peer Reviews. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

Pfeiffer Library (n.d.). LibGuides: Drafting. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

Schroeder, C. (2012). Scaffolded Assignments: Designing Structure and Support. Center for Instructional and Professional Development, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee. Retrieved from: https://

University of Waterloo. (n.d). Designing Scaffolded Assignments. University of Waterloo. Retrieved from designing_scaffolded_assignments.pdf.

Teaching and Learning Center, Ryerson University. Best Practices in Instructional Scaffolding. Ryerson University. Retrieved from

Williamson, J. (n.d.). LibGuides: Using Mind Maps in Engineering Literature Reviews: Home. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

Wohlpart, K (n.d.). LibGuides: Formatting Your Thesis/Dissertation: Home. Retrieved July 7, 2019, from

Writing Center, University of Colorado. (n.d.). Scaffolding and Sequencing Writing Assignments. University of Colorado. Retrieved from