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Student Retention Annotated Bibliography: Findings Chart

Findings Chart

Author School School Size Library Usage Librarian Interaction Expenditures
Allison, D. (2015) University of Nebraska–Lincoln (UNL) 25,820 Library use is lower among the students who leave the university in their freshman through junior years.    
Barnhart, A. (2013) Group 200+ four-year
universities and colleges
Using predictive analytics, circulation had strong predictor values for retention. Using predictive analytics for the library’s impact, reference transactions had low (but noticeable) predictor value for retention. Using predictive analytics, book expenditure, acquisitions, collection sizes, and professional salaries had strong predictor values for retention.
Black, E. L. (2017) Ohio State University 51,215   Students given a library assignment were more likely to be retained.  
Blake, J (2017) Greater Western Library Alliance (GWLA)

36 research libraries



Attendance in library training classes is highly associated with student retention.

Attendance at information literacy sessions is highly associated with student retention.

Crawford, G. A. (2015) National 1,328 four-year colleges or universities    

Private schools had a greater frequency of library use per student, more library expenses per student, greater spending for instruction per student, greater academic support per student, and higher retention and graduation rates.

Library expenses per FTE had the second highest correlation with the
retention rate, accounting for 24 percent of the variation.

For retention rate, the highest correlation is with instruction expenses per FTE.

Emmons, M. (2011) National ARL Libraries    

Percentage of professional staff per student has a statistically significant impact on retention.

A 10 percent increase in professional library staff at an ARL member library predicted a .72 percent increase in retention.

Eng, S. (2015)
National 2,373 two and four year schools   The number of library instruction classes given influenced retention by 2%. Furthermore, the more students enrolled in those instructions shaped the variance in retention by 4%.

Correlation between library expenditure and retention.

Correlation between professional salary expenditure and retention.

Professional staff FTE has a weak correlation with retention.

Haddow, G. (2010) Curtin University 56,662 Results indicated no significant differences between the number of loans by retained and withdrawn students, but the other types of library use (PC logins and other logins) were statistically significantly different between the retained student group and the withdrawn group, as measured early in the semester.    
Krieb, D. (2018) Lewis & Clark Community College 7,673  

Students that attended a library instruction class had a higher retention rate.

Students that visited the
reference desk had a higher retention rate.

LeMaistre, T. (2018) Nevada State College 3,500 Students who used library resources (as determined by EZProxy logs both on and off campus) were retained (first year students from fall to spring semester) at a significantly higher rate than their peers who did not use the library. Study controlled for high school GPA, gender, first-generation status, and Pell recipient status.    
Murray, A. (2016)
Murray State University

Looked at eight library use factors and spring to fall retention for first years and sophomores. Material checkouts and EZProxy usage were positive predictors of retention for both classes.

"A freshman student at this institution who uses the library is 9.54 times more likely to be retained." Sophomores “at this institution who used the library were 4.23 times more likely to be retained.”

O'Kelly, M. (2016) Grand Valley State University (GVSU) 24,033   Every year since 2012 a statistically significant positive correlation has
been found between in-class library instruction led by a librarian and whether or not a student re-enrolls the following fall semester.

Students who had at least one professor work with a librarian —regardless of whether those students saw a librarian in their own classes—were retained at a statistically significant higher rate.
Soria, K. M. (2013) University of Minnesota, Twin Cities 30,000

Compared 10 library usage measurements to GPA and fall to spring semester retention.

Data suggest a significant association between library usage and students’ first to second semester retention (χ2(1) = 6.86, p < .01). 2.9 percent of the students who used the library services in their first semester did not return for the spring semester compared with 4.3 percent of students who did not use any library services. "The differences are relatively small, because the majority of students at this institution persist from their first semester to their second semester."

For every one-unit increase in database use, students were also 1.03 times more likely to return for their second semester.

Soria, K. M. (2014) University of Minnesota, Twin Cities 30,000

Students who used the library were significantly more likely to re-enroll for their second year of study. Using the library at least once during the academic year increases the probability of re-enrolling for a second year by seven percentage points.

Three types of library use were significant in this model: students who had logged into a database, used an electronic journal, and used a workstation at least one time were significantly more likely to be retained for their second year compared with their peers who had not used those library services.

Each area increased the probability of re-enrolling for a second year by two to three percentage points.

Study controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, international status, Pell recipient status, first generation status, high school ACT scores, housing status, participation in freshman seminars, members of the Access to Success (ATS) program, and academic college of admittance.

Stemmer, J. K. (2016) Bellarmine University 2,800

Library usage is positively associated with freshman retention. The library’s information resources have a positive correlation, with students who use the library’s book collection and online resources being more likely to return for the second year. Another likewise negative connection is the use of computers for personal use.

Students indicating that this is one of the reasons they came to the library were less likely to return for the second year. Likewise, students who used the library’s provision of late-night study space were also negatively affected.

Thorpe, A. (2016) IU Kokomo 2,900 Found a weak positive association between library use and student retention.